Monday, July 15, 2019

A Great Consolidation of Government

Bernhard Thuersam (bernhard1848@gmail.com)

The Constitution’s ratification is said to be the result of a series of illegal acts, with some revolutionary in character. And it is difficult to imagine exactly who would have pressed charges against the framers for subverting the Articles of Confederation while circumventing their own State legislatures in the process.

The Federalists, who favored increased centralization of power, were well-aware of their inability to defend the abandonment of the Confederation legally – though James Madison weakly observed in Federalist 40 that “in all great changes in established governments, forms ought to give way to substance.”

www.Circa1865.org   The Great American Political Divide


A Great Consolidation of Government

“After June 25, 1788, three States remained outside the new Union: New York, whose convention came to order in Poughkeepsie on June 17; North Carolina, whose delegates would meet in late July; and Rhode Island, to whose fate most Federalists were indifferent.

[New York anti-Federalists searched] for a formula for conditional ratification that would keep the State in the Union while preserving the right to withdraw subsequently should its amendments not be adopted. So opposed were Federalists to any form of conditional ratification that [Alexander] Hamilton even wondered whether they should agree that New York could reserve a right to “recede” from the Union should its desired amendments not be adopted . . .

Anti-Federalists insisted that North Carolina was not rejecting the Constitution outright, and they further intimated that the State would somehow remain in the Union – if not its new government – because the compact of the [Articles of] Confederation could be dissolved only with the consent of ALL its parties. Remarkably, Anti-Federalists even challenged the right of the convention to abandon the Confederation, or to substitute “We the people” as the source of federal legitimacy for “we the States.”

[James Madison’s Federalist 39 described the Constitution]: “In its foundation it is federal, not national; in the sources from which the ordinary powers of government are drawn, it is party federal and partly national; in the operation of these powers, it is national, not federal; in the extent of them, again, it is federal, not national; and finally, in the authoritative mode of introducing amendments, it is neither wholly federal nor wholly national.”

Such distinctions hardly assured the anti-Federalists who knew that the Constitution would form the States into a new Leviathan. “We may be amused if we please, by a treatise of political anatomy,” Patrick Henry warned the Virginia ratifiers, rebutting a speech in which Madison restated this argument. “In the brain it is national: the stamina are federal – some limbs are federal – others are national.”

“But what signifies it to me, that you have the most curious anatomical description of it in its creation?” Henry asked. “To all the common purposes of Legislation it is a great consolidation of Government.”

(Original Meanings: Politics and Ideas in the Making of the Constitution, Jack N. Rakove, Alfred A. Knopf, 1997, excerpts pp. 125-126; 161-162)

Thursday, June 27, 2019

LET’S TALK LEADERSHIP

Is the purpose of leadership to influence a person, or persons to think a certain way, or to do a specific thing?
       
I would say, always the former, and sometimes the former and the latter.
         
Leadership is about fulfilling the mission given to you by God.  You are here for His Purpose, not yours.  God is the Creator, and your Creator.  The Bible tells us He knew you before you were in the womb.  Do you understand what that means?  You existed somewhere before you existed here.  God created your spirit, your soul, before He gave you your body.
         
God is wondrous.  He Created all that you see around you.  Every blade of grass, every flower, every ant, and here’s the absolutely unbelievable part, each thing has a purpose, His Purpose.  How great God must be, how awesome, how complete, how prevailing.  Like a Great Author writing every letter, every comma, every period.  God has a Plan, a Divine Plan.  His manifestation of that Plan, like a great script is Providence.  All that is, is God.  As the author He knows all, directs all, from start to finish.
         
Why does God do that?
         
Answer:  I don’t know.  He’s God, I am not.
         
What I believe is here and now is not all there is.  Here and now is an oven, a place where God makes things.  What the end purpose of those things He Makes is known only by Him.
         
So back to leadership.
         
There is a grand story being played out on earth.  In that story is good and evil.  Good is God, bad is Satan.  Leadership is a tool used by God and Satan to marshal human forces here on earth.  Leadership is an intangible, a quality of character, it is a gift from God given to some, maybe even all, in some amount.  Some have more, some less.  But, it is the gold standard for organizing human beings to act, to behave, to think.  Like the air, leadership is everywhere human beings are, and if it is not on behalf of God, it is on behalf of Satan.  There is no neutral leadership.
         
In America, at its earliest, man knew God, and knew the Bible was His Word.  The Holy Spirit played a great role in directing people and events to bring Columbus to the new world.  And from that point forward, God’s Providence guided discovery, exploration, settlement, colonization and the creation of the states until revolution led to war and the making of the United States.  The Founders, and the founders knew God.  The Founders were the names in history you know, the founders are the millions of names you don’t know, but are the people who built the communities, states, and finally America.
         
God had saved the western hemisphere for a purpose, and at least to the end of the Cold War in 1991 America’s purpose was almost self-evident.
         
Leadership had been God’s tool.  In the Bible we are told God chooses the leaders.  He chooses the good leaders, and He chooses the bad leaders.  And like the wheat stalks blowing in the fields, first this way and then that, with the prevailing wind, human beings also blow this way and that.  What was once good and right becomes wrong, and what is and always was wrong, is becoming right for now.
         
Like a ship in a storm, America is being tossed.  The impulses are rapid, with irresistible force, chaotic, unpredictable, and wild.  Like the Apostles in the boat, with Jesus sleeping, we are afraid.  But God is here, and what occurs is at His Direction, not that of Satan, though Satan thinks he is director.
         
Leadership has two choices today.  Leaders can panic, react to each wave, to each force, or leadership can rely on God, spend time in seeking God, praising God for all He has done for America.  Some problems like immigration seem out of control.  We look to control, but instead maybe we need to look to God and have confidence in His Plan.
         
The mistake America is making, is the one made by Israel.  We think we are in control.  We have turned from God.  The decisions we make are the ones embracing evil, and calling evil right.  God gave us a manual to live by.  The Founders/founders thought so much of the Bible that great Bible Societies sprang up all over the new born United States.  Thomas Jefferson himself, selected from the Bible the lessons of Jesus to be given to native Americans.  Congress appropriated money for churches and religious men to help native Americans assimilate into America.   
         
Leadership must come from the descendants of the founders.  The entire infrastructure of government is corrupt.  The Courts, the judges, that came from Moses are now from Bail. Our representatives represent our worst features, not our best.  We depend on a President whose heart may be looking towards God, but his some of his words and actions are acid.  The great failure of America took decades to blossom.  At one time – we were a Christian nation, our churches were our nation’s conscience.  The Bible was the cornerstone.
       
Today we must return from whence we came.  Lead, get out your Bible and read it.  Carry it where you go.  And head to church, seek out a church that is of the Word, and not the wind.  Understand your place, repent, go to God for the sake of your children and this nation’s future.

Mark Vogl
johnyreb43@yahoo.com

Monday, June 03, 2019

Republic, Free Market

There are times when we just feel lost. You try to reason something out, first in your own mind, then with another, honestly attempting to understand what is right. Not from a political standpoint, just what is right and what is wrong, and it just seems to no avail. Is it a fact or not that this nation was founded upon the principal that all men are created equal and are free individuals to pursue their own happiness in their own way without government interference, as long as their way in pursuit of happiness does not infringe upon the rights of another in pursuit of their happiness?
     
Is it a fact or not that what is happiness to one may not be happiness to another? Is it a fact or not that the most successful, time proven system of people achieving their happiness is called a free market? I am thinking that Capitalism is the wrong word used to describe our way of traveling down the highway of life in the free pursuit of our personal happiness. Capitalism has the sound of, "It's a lot of big money or nothing" to the younger generation. Rather our system is really, Free Market, Individual Free Enterprise, "Enterprise": (1) an undertaking; project; a bold, difficult, dangerous, or important undertaking; (2) willingness to undertake new or risky projects; energy and initiative; (3) active participation in projects...Webster's College Dictionary.
     
Free Market, Individually Free Constitutional Republic. There are words which warms the heart, brightens the spirit, makes a person feel good, puts tears in your eyes. Republic is one of those words. Free to think what ever we wish to think, free to speak what ever we want to say, free to worship as we will, or not worship at all, free to defend ourselves and family, free to use our personally earned money as we wish, free to vote and elect those we wish to be the caretakers of those freedoms guaranteed by our Constitution, free to be responsible and take care of ourselves, free to pursue our happiness in our way, yes fail or succeed in our way.
     
Everything I have just described will be completely wiped out of existence if we allow Socialism to become the system of government in this nation. It will be like using an eraser on a blackboard. Republic will be no more, gone forever. Socialism is usually defined as government controlled production and distribution. But it is much, much more. It always begins with an innocently perceived government program that is touted as free. A thousand cuts later it is complete control of every aspect of your life. Those in power will remain there, unchecked.
     
Ever since history began to be recorded we can read of the struggle of man’s desire to be free, to live his life as he wishes, to pursue his own happiness free from government control of his life, free from others who think they know best about how he should live. That struggle can be properly spoken of as war. A war between men desiring to be free and men who want to force them into bondage. A war between freedom (Constitutional Republic) and slavery (Socialism), if you will.
     
My plea to men and women all over this great nation is we must rededicate ourselves to the proposition that this is a country of Individual Freedom and Free Enterprise and be devoted to our Representative Constitutional Republic, and strengthen our resolve to keep it by winning this battle for the hearts and minds of men and women all across this nation against Socialism.

STOPPING SOCIALISM IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ISSUE BEFORE THE AMERICAN PEOPLE TODAY!! THE SLEEPING GIANT MUST BE WOKEN.
Please help me to spread this to as many people as humanly possible!!

Thank you, until next time

John Porter
Harrison, Arkansas
johnporter21039@gmail.com

Sunday, May 26, 2019

A COMMUNIST FBI DIRECTOR TOO?

By Carl F. Worden 
wolfeyes00@gmail.com

It is old news that John Brennan, former Director of the CIA under President Obama, voted for a Communist candidate.  But recently, James Comey, former Director of the FBI under President Obama, admitted he had been a Communist.

Is there a pattern emerging here?  Consider this:  The United States Constitution does not give the federal government the authority to meddle in our children’s education, yet we have a U.S. Department of Education.  The existence of such an agency is a direct violation of Article X of the Bill of Rights and it lawfully should be disbanded.

And what do we have to show for allowing the federal government to meddle in our children’s education?  We have a bunch of kids who have been indoctrinated to view Socialism/Communism in a favorable light, and the source of that indoctrination is none other than our public school system.  Was that another act committed by President Obama?  Did Obama place Communists in charge of the Department of Education too, or is it just an uncanny coincidence?

The FBI is now America’s federal police force, yet the Framers did not authorize the federal government to form a federal police force -- which is why Congress played on semantics by calling it the Federal Bureau of Investigation.  Regardless of Sean Hannity’s insistence that the rank & file of the FBI are solid Americans, and the rot only appears at the top, the FBI has had a long history of outrageous abuses that include Ruby Ridge, Waco, the Whitey Bulger scandal in Boston and many other cases that scream abuse and corruption.

When candidate Obama was running for office, he kept telling us he would fundamentally change the United States, and we foolishly believed he meant for the better.  It was probably the only time Obama didn’t lie.

It is part of the Communist Manifesto to take over a nation’s health care as a vital step towards achieving Communism, and forcing ObamaCare on us was Obama’s signature act.  I also remember that Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Roberts, accommodated the enactment of ObamaCare by calling the Individual Mandate a tax, even though it was not described as such in the bill itself.  In other words, Roberts acted as an enabler for that act, rather than limiting himself to consider the constitutionality of ObamaCare as it was presented.

Is Justice Roberts a closet Communist too, or did Obama somehow corrupt Roberts, or perhaps blackmail him, to do Obama’s bidding?

Right now, we have scores of lower court federal judges who were appointed by Bill Clinton and Obama.  Were they also hand-picked for their Communist leanings?  Considering the judiciary’s never-ending adverse rulings against almost everything President Trump attempts to do, it certainly appears that way, and the only way to get rid of bad federal judges is to impeach them or kill them.  That might explain the very suspicious circumstances surrounding the death of Justice Antonin Scalia.

Just before he was assassinated, President John F. Kennedy gave a speech in which he warned that he had discovered a plot within our government that would enslave every man, woman and child in America.  Unfortunately, Kennedy was killed before he could extrapolate further, but based on hard history, what system is better at enslaving an entire population -- than Communism?

Being a student of Bible Prophesy, I know that the One World Government spoken of by the prophets is a Socialist/Communist system, and that almost every nation will fall under its authority.  However, it clearly states that Israel and Jordan will escape, and there is also strong prophetic evidence in the Bible that indicates the United States will also escape, mainly because we are the primary protector of Israel.

As more evidence is revealed about the Democrat plot to deny Trump the presidency, and if that failed, to remove him from office, I am becoming ever-more convinced that had Hillary Clinton been elected president, we would be well on our way to being disarmed and being forced under the One World Government that is forming in Europe right now.

President Obama had doubled the national debt from $10 trillion dollars to almost $20 trillion dollars in just eight short years, yet no one seems to know exactly where all that money went.  It took 240 years to reach the $10 trillion mark under President GW Bush, but only eight to double it?  And nobody is asking how?  C’mon!

Had Hillary been elected, I strongly suspect it was her sacred duty to run the debt high enough to force the United States into default -- forcing our “new” government to be formed under the One World system.  Just three years ago we had record unemployment, millions of people on food stamps and a GDP that rarely hit 2%.  We were all told that was the new normal and that a return to our former prosperity was an impossibility -- and now it appears those eight years of torment were intentionally engineered!

Call me crazy if you like, but I truly believe that was the Democrats’ plan, and I also believe the surprise election of President Trump was an act of God‘s direct intervention to thwart that diabolical plan.

Friday, April 19, 2019

REAL “Child Separations”

By Dr. Ed DeVries

I live to expose the hypocrisy of the left. As a result, many are angry at me all the time. In the last two months, however, I have genuinely invoked the full-force of their collective wrath. How? By simply using my editorials and radio show to expose the fact that there is absolutely no difference between the border separations resulting from the President’s “zero tolerance” policy that separates children from their parents at the Mexican border, and the “Child Protection” and “Foster Care” systems in the United States.

I just can’t figure out why the same people who go berserk over 2,000 incidents -- where the children of illegals are separated from their parents at the border – don’t utter a peep when states separate almost 300,000 children from their AMERICAN parents each year.

An endless parade of actors and other phonies constantly hector us on TV that it’s immoral to separate a child from its mother: Yet, they are oblivious to the fact that the laws in many states permit the theft of nearly a third of a million children from their parents each year. Many of these laws were enacted by the same liberal politicians who now tell us that it is “immoral” to separate kids from their parents.

While the separations at the border are unfortunate, the criminal activity of their alien parents have left the Trump administration with no other recourse. And the sad reality is that these illegal alien parents are essentially using their own children (or imposters) as “accessories” in the commission of their crimes.

Also, while the procedures and facilities used by the Administration to effect separation at the border are published and scrutinized by the media, the same leftists go to great lengths to shield the practices of state “Child Protective” agencies from similar public exposure, knowing that those agencies target AMERICAN children and families for much less humane treatment.

On June 1st, 2018, Texas Lt. Gov, Dan Patrick, went so far as to admit the same when he told the HOUSTON CHRONICLE"And in terms of family issues, we do that with child protective services and social services in our country, where we find a child in a dangerous situation— so the left is trying to make a bigger issue out of this because they want an open border."

In light of all this controversy surrounding child separations at the border -- from both left and the right -- why aren’t state “Child Welfare” and “Protection” systems getting the scrutiny and exposure that they long deserve?

While there are several family separations occurring at the border of Lt. Gov. Patrick’s state of Texas and neighboring Mexico, a greater number of separations occur at the border of California and Mexico. This is because most would-be aliens believe that they will fare better in liberal California than in mistakenly “conservative” Texas.

Cathy Senderling-McDonald -- deputy executive director of the California County Welfare Directors Association -- says that in her state, “There are required court hearings, with court-appointed lawyers, that begin no later than two court days after a child is removed from their parents. A petition must be filed at that time or the child is returned to the parents. Abuse and neglect on the part of the parents must be substantiated in court for the child to be in our system.”

Of course, this would lead us to assume that parents are receiving due process, including court hearings where the rules of evidence are followed, and, where the parents are allowed to have legal counsel.  But such is NOT the case in many so-called “child welfare” cases, where there is absolutely NO due process to protect children or their parents.

Often, the “child welfare” case workers have already taken the children without a lawful court hearing. This is easily accomplished, since they have the discretion to declare any situation an “emergency,” after which they can immediately remove the children from parental custody on the spot. If the parents resist, the social worker simply calls the police who will amuse themselves by having yet another opportunity to play the role of “mafia enforcer.”  

More often than not, lawfully prescribed court hearings do not come before the fact, they come after it. And to help clarify the legal mumbo jumbo, two “court days” usually means at least four or five calendar days and sometimes longer.

While that may seem like a short stay in State custody or “foster care,” it is long enough to emotionally scar a child for life. For very small children it is quite traumatizing to see force used against their parents and then be taken away by strangers. In itself, that scenario is usually a far greater instance of abuse than whatever neglect any parent had been accused of.

Separating the child from its parents before the hearing severely disadvantages the parents and benefits the government. Then, to complicate matters, parents are often discouraged from hiring an attorney, or told that doing so will jeopardize their chances of seeing their children. (Did I fail to mention that most government agents are very convincing and expert liars?)

Moreover, if the family is permitted to retain an attorney, it is almost always a public defender or “Legal Aid” attorney (i.e., some guy who barely graduated from a Night School Correspondence College of Law,) who literally meets his clients for five minutes before the hearing and then makes the identical pleading for every “client,” regardless of circumstances.

Those who assume that allegations of “abuse” must be substantiated are simply not familiar with the process. Child protection hearings are always held in a civil court -- not criminal -- so as to avoid the requirement for strict legal standards and traditional rules of evidence.

Traditional legal standards such as “beyond a reasonable doubt” or “clear and convincing” evidence do not apply in these “civil” proceedings. Agency caseworkers are allowed to get away with nebulous standards such as “a preponderance of the evidence,” or more realistically, the “because I say so” standard of justice.   

Finally, presiding over the whole shenanigan is a “judge” who normally hears civil cases. If he must run for reelection, he knows that if harm should befall a child he reunites with its parents, the bad publicity could cost him reelection. So there is an incentive to simply rubber-stamp the agency’s findings and keep the child in foster care. This is true even when the agency fails to make a case and even when he knows the children will be harmed by the system. This is the wisest course for the judge, and many judges have admitted to it.

In John 3:19-20 our Lord said that, “this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved.”

This is why in most states these “child protection” hearings are more secret than a FISA Court proceeding, with severe criminal penalties for anyone -- especially a parent or attorney -- who would dare attempt to expose the process. To my knowledge, the only judges ever impeached in the State of Texas were targeted for daring to question the State’s “Child Protective Services.”

Let me put this another way, if you or your family found yourself in legal jeopardy, would you say: “Just give me a public defender who has no real time for my case and try me in a kangaroo court that can convict me on uncorroborated hearsay in a secret trial”? Or would you insist on your right to “due process”?  

So while Cathy McDonald and her ilk argue that the foster care system is not a place“where the children are pulled away from their parents and placed into warehouses with thin blankets, chain link fences and only each other for comfort,” the reality is that the “Child Protection” gestapos are traumatizing over 100 times as many children as those recently separated from their parents by Border Patrol agents.

And unlike the Border Patrol agents, who have had a crisis thrust upon them, the so-called child “protectors” actively seek out hundreds of thousands of AMERICAN kids, making sure to increase the number every year so as to justify their agencies existence and increase its funding.

And rather than placing them in temporary shelters, they rip their young victims away from their parents and place them in institutions where abuse is well documented, a fact that leads us to ask how much more abuse goes undocumented?

If that’s not bad enough, they literally drug the kids with dangerous psychiatric medication. And the “Child Protection” agencies will keep their kids in a custody far worse than prison and far longer than the Border Patrol keeps kids in it’s custody. Worse, the Border patrol often turns the kids in their custody over to the real child abusers, i.e. the “Foster Care” bureaucracy.

Even if one accepts that the intent of “child protection” and “foster care” is to serve the best interests of the children, that does not in any way change the result. And that horrible result is perhaps the ONLY thing that the two situations -- separating children at the border and separating them for “child protection” -- have in common. A connection that the media, the politicians, and the “foster care” apologists are  desperate to ignore.

Whether the child is ripped from his mother or father’s arms by a border patrol agent or a policeman at the request of a “Child Protective Services” worker, the tears are the same and the trauma is the same.

My prayer is that what happens on the border will be a wake-up call for patriotic Americans. Would to God, the next time President Trump is called a monster for tearing children from their parents at the border he simply use his bully pulpit to tell us all who the real monsters are and why. President Trump by the way has the power to commute the sentances of millions of Americas kids imprisoned within the “system.” The liberals on the other hand are hoping that we all just change the channel.

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Oppose the Equality Act, H.R. 5 & S. 788

On March 13, Democrats introduced the Equality Act,H.R. 5 in the House and S. 788in the Senate, “To prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex, gender identity, and sexual orientation, and for other purposes.” As of April 16, H.R. 5 has 240 cosponsors and S. 788 has 46 cosponsors.

Here's how Alex Newman described this legislation in “‘Equality Act’ Seeks Federal Persecution of Christians,” March 26, 2019,TheNewAmerican.com

 
Democrats in Congress are pushing ‘equality’ legislation that critics say would criminalize Christianity, Islam, and Judaism by forcing virtually every institution in society — including religious institutions — to hire, serve, and promote homosexuals and individuals confused about their gender. A number of analysts have warned that by enshrining ‘sexual orientation’ in the statute, even pedophilia and pederasty could be protected. In the House of Representatives, Democrats already have more than enough co-sponsors to pass the bill. And in the Senate, they are getting very close. But a massive coalition of critics from across the political spectrum and a broad array of religious traditions is rising up to stop it before it is too late....
 
In the end, the Equality Act is unconstitutional on its face. The federal government has no power to force anyone — much less everyone — to bow down to its radical anti-Christian ideology. And in fact, multiple provisions of the Constitution, including the First Amendment and the 10th Amendment, specifically prohibit the sort of lunacy envisioned in this legislation. Americans who value liberty and Christian civilization must recognize that everything they cherish is on the line. It is time to speak out, or be crushed by the oncoming freight train.
 
Alex has also written a followup article, "Citing 'Equality' Act, Black Pastor Warns That Congressional Black Caucus and NAACP Are 'More dangerous Than KKK.'"

Please take action by contacting your representative (202-225-3121), senators (202-224-3121), and President Trump (202-456-1111) by phone and email in opposition to H.R. 5 and S. 788. Remind them that the First Amendment says: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof...." Then tell them that the Equality Act infringes on our precious freedom of religion as stated in the First Amendment. 

It’s important to let Trump know how you feel, because if both houses pass this legislation, Trump will have the opportunity to veto it.

Thanks.

Thursday, July 05, 2018

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (1776)

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.-That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, -That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.-Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.
The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated:
Georgia: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton
North Carolina: William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn
South Carolina: Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton
Massachusetts: John Hancock
Maryland: Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Virginia: George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton
Pennsylvania: Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross
Delaware: Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean
New York: William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris
New Jersey: Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark
New Hampshire: Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple
Massachusetts: Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry
Rhode Island: Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery
Connecticut: Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott
New Hampshire: Matthew Thornton